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References and Citation Styles

Reference list is a necessary part of studies and research works.

The bibliography is a bibliographic description of documents used (quoted, paraphrased or mentioned) in a written work or research publication.

There are many different standards for compiling reference lists, describing the elements of references and specifying the order in which they are presented. The most commonly chosen style of citation is that used by scholars in the same field of science around the world.

According to the rules of the KU approved on the 2020 February 6  “On the Approval of the Description of the General Requirements for Independent Written Papers of Klaipėda University Students”, bibliography, citing in the KU students’ written papers must follow the requirements of scientific fields:

General rules for compiling a bibliography / reference list:

Each of the analyzed, cited sources must be described in accordance with the standards of the bibliographic description, indicating the main elements of the bibliographic reference.

  • The bibliography should be compiled by choosing one citation style.
  • All references to bibliographic citations must be used for all references in the text.
  • All sources analyzed, analyzed, and summarized in the text should be listed in the text and bibliography.
  • Bibliographic records are presented in alphabetical order of the authors’ names and, if no authors are indicated, the titles:
    • first bibliographic descriptions in the Latin alphabet,
    • followed by Cyrillic and other alphabets.
  • The works of the same author are presented in the bibliography in chronological order.
  • Bibliographic descriptions in the bibliography may or may not be numbered (depending on the citation style chosen).

Researchers planning to publish articles in international journals are advised to inquire in advance which citation style is required by the chosen journal or by a particular publisher.